In branding, typography contributes to visual identity.
There are a huge amount of different typefaces in the world. Some of them are very iconic.
Each typeface is created with different shapes.
Gill Sans is a major typeface which was designed by Eric Gill. To create this typeface, Gill followed the principles that were established by Edward Johnston (founder of Johnston Sans). When creating his font, Johnston “based its weight and proportions on seven diamond-shaped strokes of a pen stacked in a row” (www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-01/16/london-underground-typeface).
Franklin Gothic was designed in 1902 by Moris Fuller Benton. It was created for the American Typefounders Company, and is said to be named after Benjamin Franklin. This sans serif type has a number of different weights, and the original is bold. Gothic is very popular and is often used in the press and advertisements.
Helvetica is also a very popular sans serif typeface. It was designed in 1957 at the Haas type foundry (Haas’sche Schriftgiesserei), in Switzerland, by Max Meidinger and Eduard Hoffmann. “It was created specifically to be neutral, to not give any impression or have any meaning in itself” – www.webdesignerdepot.com/2010/01/the-simplicity-of-helvetica.
When creating type, looking at a type anatomy diagram (as seen below) helps.